Genetic Chaos

Thursday, May 06, 2004

Characterization of Ancestral and Derived Y-Chromosome Haplotypes of New World Native Populations

We analyze the allelic polymorphisms in seven Y-specific microsatellite loci and a Y-specific alphoid system with 27 variants (h I–XXVII), in a total of 89 Y chromosomes carrying the DYS199T allele and belonging to populations representing Amerindian and Na-Dene linguistic groups. Since there are no indications of recurrence for the DYS199C->T transition, it is assumed that all DYS199T haplotypes derive from a single individual in whom the C->T mutation occurred for the first time. We identified both the ancestral founder haplotype, 0A, of the DYS199T lineage and seven derived haplogroups diverging from the ancestral one by one to seven mutational steps. The 0A haplotype (5.7% of Native American chromosomes) had the following constitution: DYS199T, (h II, DYS19/13, DYS389a/10, DYS389b/27, DYS390/24, DYS391/10, DYS392/14, and DYS393/13 (microsatellite alleles are indicated as number of repeats). We analyzed the Y-specific microsatellite mutation rate in 1,743 father-son transmissions, and we pooled our data with data in the literature, to obtain an average mutation rate of .0012. We estimated that the 0A haplotype has an average age of 22,770 years (minimum 13,500 years, maximum 58,700 years). Since the DYS199T allele is found with high frequency in Native American chromosomes, we propose that 0A is one of the most prevalent founder paternal lineages of New World aborigines.

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